Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

    [DllImport (@"urlmon.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
    private extern static System.UInt32 FindMimeFromData(
        System.UInt32 pBC, 
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)] System.String pwzUrl,
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)] byte[] pBuffer,
        System.UInt32 cbSize,
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)] System.String pwzMimeProposed,
        System.UInt32 dwMimeFlags,
        out System.UInt32 ppwzMimeOut,
        System.UInt32 dwReserverd
    );

    private string GetMimeFromRegistry (string Filename)
    {
        string mime = "application/octetstream";
        string ext = System.IO.Path.GetExtension(Filename).ToLower();
        Microsoft.Win32.RegistryKey rk = Microsoft.Win32.Registry.ClassesRoot.OpenSubKey(ext);
        if (rk != null && rk.GetValue("Content Type") != null)
            mime = rk.GetValue("Content Type").ToString();
        return mime;
    }

    public string GetMimeTypeFromFileAndRegistry (string filename)
    {
        if (!File.Exists(filename))
        {
           return GetMimeFromRegistry (filename);
        }

        byte[] buffer = new byte[256];

        using (FileStream fs = new FileStream(filename, FileMode.Open))
        {
            if (fs.Length >= 256)
                fs.Read(buffer, 0, 256);
            else
                fs.Read(buffer, 0, (int)fs.Length);
        }

        try
        {            
            System.UInt32 mimetype;

            FindMimeFromData(0, null, buffer, 256, null, 0, out mimetype, 0);

            System.IntPtr mimeTypePtr = new IntPtr(mimetype);

            string mime = Marshal.PtrToStringUni(mimeTypePtr);

            Marshal.FreeCoTaskMem(mimeTypePtr);

            if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace (mime) || 
                mime =="text/plain" || mime == "application/octet-stream")                    
            {
                return GetMimeFromRegistry (filename);
            }

            return mime;
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            return GetMimeFromRegistry (filename);
        }
    }

@PranavShah, note that the servers' knowledge of mime-types (the ones returned by the registry lookup) are subjective to what software is installed on the server. A basic windows installation, or a dedicated web server should not be reliable to know mime-types of 3rd party software that is not needfully installed. Still, it should know what a .doc file is.

It would be neat to see a hybrid solution of the above extension dictionary and urlmon.

Thanks for the code. It worked partially. For both a "doc" and "tif" file it returned "application/octet-stream". Are there any other options avilable.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public static class MIMEAssistant
{
  private static readonly Dictionary<string, string> MIMETypesDictionary = new Dictionary<string, string>
  {
    {"ai", "application/postscript"},
    {"aif", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"aifc", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"aiff", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"asc", "text/plain"},
    {"atom", "application/atom+xml"},
    {"au", "audio/basic"},
    {"avi", "video/x-msvideo"},
    {"bcpio", "application/x-bcpio"},
    {"bin", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"bmp", "image/bmp"},
    {"cdf", "application/x-netcdf"},
    {"cgm", "image/cgm"},
    {"class", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"cpio", "application/x-cpio"},
    {"cpt", "application/mac-compactpro"},
    {"csh", "application/x-csh"},
    {"css", "text/css"},
    {"dcr", "application/x-director"},
    {"dif", "video/x-dv"},
    {"dir", "application/x-director"},
    {"djv", "image/vnd.djvu"},
    {"djvu", "image/vnd.djvu"},
    {"dll", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"dmg", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"dms", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"doc", "application/msword"},
    {"docx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document"},
    {"dotx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.template"},
    {"docm","application/vnd.ms-word.document.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"dotm","application/vnd.ms-word.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"dtd", "application/xml-dtd"},
    {"dv", "video/x-dv"},
    {"dvi", "application/x-dvi"},
    {"dxr", "application/x-director"},
    {"eps", "application/postscript"},
    {"etx", "text/x-setext"},
    {"exe", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"ez", "application/andrew-inset"},
    {"gif", "image/gif"},
    {"gram", "application/srgs"},
    {"grxml", "application/srgs+xml"},
    {"gtar", "application/x-gtar"},
    {"hdf", "application/x-hdf"},
    {"hqx", "application/mac-binhex40"},
    {"htm", "text/html"},
    {"html", "text/html"},
    {"ice", "x-conference/x-cooltalk"},
    {"ico", "image/x-icon"},
    {"ics", "text/calendar"},
    {"ief", "image/ief"},
    {"ifb", "text/calendar"},
    {"iges", "model/iges"},
    {"igs", "model/iges"},
    {"jnlp", "application/x-java-jnlp-file"},
    {"jp2", "image/jp2"},
    {"jpe", "image/jpeg"},
    {"jpeg", "image/jpeg"},
    {"jpg", "image/jpeg"},
    {"js", "application/x-javascript"},
    {"kar", "audio/midi"},
    {"latex", "application/x-latex"},
    {"lha", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"lzh", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"m3u", "audio/x-mpegurl"},
    {"m4a", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4b", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4p", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4u", "video/vnd.mpegurl"},
    {"m4v", "video/x-m4v"},
    {"mac", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"man", "application/x-troff-man"},
    {"mathml", "application/mathml+xml"},
    {"me", "application/x-troff-me"},
    {"mesh", "model/mesh"},
    {"mid", "audio/midi"},
    {"midi", "audio/midi"},
    {"mif", "application/vnd.mif"},
    {"mov", "video/quicktime"},
    {"movie", "video/x-sgi-movie"},
    {"mp2", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"mp3", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"mp4", "video/mp4"},
    {"mpe", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpeg", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpg", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpga", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"ms", "application/x-troff-ms"},
    {"msh", "model/mesh"},
    {"mxu", "video/vnd.mpegurl"},
    {"nc", "application/x-netcdf"},
    {"oda", "application/oda"},
    {"ogg", "application/ogg"},
    {"pbm", "image/x-portable-bitmap"},
    {"pct", "image/pict"},
    {"pdb", "chemical/x-pdb"},
    {"pdf", "application/pdf"},
    {"pgm", "image/x-portable-graymap"},
    {"pgn", "application/x-chess-pgn"},
    {"pic", "image/pict"},
    {"pict", "image/pict"},
    {"png", "image/png"}, 
    {"pnm", "image/x-portable-anymap"},
    {"pnt", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"pntg", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"ppm", "image/x-portable-pixmap"},
    {"ppt", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"},
    {"pptx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation"},
    {"potx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template"},
    {"ppsx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow"},
    {"ppam","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"pptm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"potm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"ppsm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"ps", "application/postscript"},
    {"qt", "video/quicktime"},
    {"qti", "image/x-quicktime"},
    {"qtif", "image/x-quicktime"},
    {"ra", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"},
    {"ram", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"},
    {"ras", "image/x-cmu-raster"},
    {"rdf", "application/rdf+xml"},
    {"rgb", "image/x-rgb"},
    {"rm", "application/vnd.rn-realmedia"},
    {"roff", "application/x-troff"},
    {"rtf", "text/rtf"},
    {"rtx", "text/richtext"},
    {"sgm", "text/sgml"},
    {"sgml", "text/sgml"},
    {"sh", "application/x-sh"},
    {"shar", "application/x-shar"},
    {"silo", "model/mesh"},
    {"sit", "application/x-stuffit"},
    {"skd", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skm", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skp", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skt", "application/x-koan"},
    {"smi", "application/smil"},
    {"smil", "application/smil"},
    {"snd", "audio/basic"},
    {"so", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"spl", "application/x-futuresplash"},
    {"src", "application/x-wais-source"},
    {"sv4cpio", "application/x-sv4cpio"},
    {"sv4crc", "application/x-sv4crc"},
    {"svg", "image/svg+xml"},
    {"swf", "application/x-shockwave-flash"},
    {"t", "application/x-troff"},
    {"tar", "application/x-tar"},
    {"tcl", "application/x-tcl"},
    {"tex", "application/x-tex"},
    {"texi", "application/x-texinfo"},
    {"texinfo", "application/x-texinfo"},
    {"tif", "image/tiff"},
    {"tiff", "image/tiff"},
    {"tr", "application/x-troff"},
    {"tsv", "text/tab-separated-values"},
    {"txt", "text/plain"},
    {"ustar", "application/x-ustar"},
    {"vcd", "application/x-cdlink"},
    {"vrml", "model/vrml"},
    {"vxml", "application/voicexml+xml"},
    {"wav", "audio/x-wav"},
    {"wbmp", "image/vnd.wap.wbmp"},
    {"wbmxl", "application/vnd.wap.wbxml"},
    {"wml", "text/vnd.wap.wml"},
    {"wmlc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlc"},
    {"wmls", "text/vnd.wap.wmlscript"},
    {"wmlsc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc"},
    {"wrl", "model/vrml"},
    {"xbm", "image/x-xbitmap"},
    {"xht", "application/xhtml+xml"},
    {"xhtml", "application/xhtml+xml"},
    {"xls", "application/vnd.ms-excel"},                        
    {"xml", "application/xml"},
    {"xpm", "image/x-xpixmap"},
    {"xsl", "application/xml"},
    {"xlsx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet"},
    {"xltx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.template"},
    {"xlsm","application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xltm","application/vnd.ms-excel.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xlam","application/vnd.ms-excel.addin.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xlsb","application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.binary.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xslt", "application/xslt+xml"},
    {"xul", "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml"},
    {"xwd", "image/x-xwindowdump"},
    {"xyz", "chemical/x-xyz"},
    {"zip", "application/zip"}
  };

  public static string GetMIMEType(string fileName)
  {
    //get file extension
    string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToLowerInvariant();

    if (extension.Length > 0 && 
        MIMETypesDictionary.ContainsKey(extension.Remove(0, 1)))
    {
      return MIMETypesDictionary[extension.Remove(0, 1)];
    }
    return "unknown/unknown";
  }
}

@JalalAldeenSaa'd - an even better fix IMHO would be to use StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase to the dictionary constructor. Ordinal comparison is faster than invariant, and you will get rid of .ToLower() and its variations.

A subset of this list is also convenient for mapping WebImage.ImageFormat back to a mime type. Thanks!

Depending on your goal, you might want to return "application/octet-stream" instead of "unknown/unknown".

Since my edit was rejected I will post here: the extension must be in all lower case, or it won't be found in the dictionary.

This is based on the filename however. It could be useful for someone, just not the OP, who wanted it done by file contents.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


Public Shared Function GetFromFileName(ByVal fileName As String) As String
        Return GetFromExtension(Path.GetExtension(fileName).Remove(0, 1))
    End Function

    Public Shared Function GetFromExtension(ByVal extension As String) As String
        If extension.StartsWith("."c) Then
            extension = extension.Remove(0, 1)
        End If

        If MIMETypesDictionary.ContainsKey(extension) Then
            Return MIMETypesDictionary(extension)
        End If

        Return "unknown/unknown"
    End Function

    Private Shared ReadOnly MIMETypesDictionary As New Dictionary(Of String, String)() From { _
         {"ai", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"aif", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"aifc", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"aiff", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"asc", "text/plain"}, _
         {"atom", "application/atom+xml"}, _
         {"au", "audio/basic"}, _
         {"avi", "video/x-msvideo"}, _
         {"bcpio", "application/x-bcpio"}, _
         {"bin", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"bmp", "image/bmp"}, _
         {"cdf", "application/x-netcdf"}, _
         {"cgm", "image/cgm"}, _
         {"class", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"cpio", "application/x-cpio"}, _
         {"cpt", "application/mac-compactpro"}, _
         {"csh", "application/x-csh"}, _
         {"css", "text/css"}, _
         {"dcr", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"dif", "video/x-dv"}, _
         {"dir", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"djv", "image/vnd.djvu"}, _
         {"djvu", "image/vnd.djvu"}, _
         {"dll", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"dmg", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"dms", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"doc", "application/msword"}, _
         {"dtd", "application/xml-dtd"}, _
         {"dv", "video/x-dv"}, _
         {"dvi", "application/x-dvi"}, _
         {"dxr", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"eps", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"etx", "text/x-setext"}, _
         {"exe", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"ez", "application/andrew-inset"}, _
         {"gif", "image/gif"}, _
         {"gram", "application/srgs"}, _
         {"grxml", "application/srgs+xml"}, _
         {"gtar", "application/x-gtar"}, _
         {"hdf", "application/x-hdf"}, _
         {"hqx", "application/mac-binhex40"}, _
         {"htm", "text/html"}, _
         {"html", "text/html"}, _
         {"ice", "x-conference/x-cooltalk"}, _
         {"ico", "image/x-icon"}, _
         {"ics", "text/calendar"}, _
         {"ief", "image/ief"}, _
         {"ifb", "text/calendar"}, _
         {"iges", "model/iges"}, _
         {"igs", "model/iges"}, _
         {"jnlp", "application/x-java-jnlp-file"}, _
         {"jp2", "image/jp2"}, _
         {"jpe", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"jpeg", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"jpg", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"js", "application/x-javascript"}, _
         {"kar", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"latex", "application/x-latex"}, _
         {"lha", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"lzh", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"m3u", "audio/x-mpegurl"}, _
         {"m4a", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4b", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4p", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4u", "video/vnd.mpegurl"}, _
         {"m4v", "video/x-m4v"}, _
         {"mac", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"man", "application/x-troff-man"}, _
         {"mathml", "application/mathml+xml"}, _
         {"me", "application/x-troff-me"}, _
         {"mesh", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"mid", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"midi", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"mif", "application/vnd.mif"}, _
         {"mov", "video/quicktime"}, _
         {"movie", "video/x-sgi-movie"}, _
         {"mp2", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"mp3", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"mp4", "video/mp4"}, _
         {"mpe", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpeg", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpg", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpga", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"ms", "application/x-troff-ms"}, _
         {"msh", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"mxu", "video/vnd.mpegurl"}, _
         {"nc", "application/x-netcdf"}, _
         {"oda", "application/oda"}, _
         {"ogg", "application/ogg"}, _
         {"pbm", "image/x-portable-bitmap"}, _
         {"pct", "image/pict"}, _
         {"pdb", "chemical/x-pdb"}, _
         {"pdf", "application/pdf"}, _
         {"pgm", "image/x-portable-graymap"}, _
         {"pgn", "application/x-chess-pgn"}, _
         {"pic", "image/pict"}, _
         {"pict", "image/pict"}, _
         {"png", "image/png"}, _
         {"pnm", "image/x-portable-anymap"}, _
         {"pnt", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"pntg", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"ppm", "image/x-portable-pixmap"}, _
         {"ppt", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"}, _
         {"ps", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"qt", "video/quicktime"}, _
         {"qti", "image/x-quicktime"}, _
         {"qtif", "image/x-quicktime"}, _
         {"ra", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"}, _
         {"ram", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"}, _
         {"ras", "image/x-cmu-raster"}, _
         {"rdf", "application/rdf+xml"}, _
         {"rgb", "image/x-rgb"}, _
         {"rm", "application/vnd.rn-realmedia"}, _
         {"roff", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"rtf", "text/rtf"}, _
         {"rtx", "text/richtext"}, _
         {"sgm", "text/sgml"}, _
         {"sgml", "text/sgml"}, _
         {"sh", "application/x-sh"}, _
         {"shar", "application/x-shar"}, _
         {"silo", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"sit", "application/x-stuffit"}, _
         {"skd", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skm", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skp", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skt", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"smi", "application/smil"}, _
         {"smil", "application/smil"}, _
         {"snd", "audio/basic"}, _
         {"so", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"spl", "application/x-futuresplash"}, _
         {"src", "application/x-wais-source"}, _
         {"sv4cpio", "application/x-sv4cpio"}, _
         {"sv4crc", "application/x-sv4crc"}, _
         {"svg", "image/svg+xml"}, _
         {"swf", "application/x-shockwave-flash"}, _
         {"t", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"tar", "application/x-tar"}, _
         {"tcl", "application/x-tcl"}, _
         {"tex", "application/x-tex"}, _
         {"texi", "application/x-texinfo"}, _
         {"texinfo", "application/x-texinfo"}, _
         {"tif", "image/tiff"}, _
         {"tiff", "image/tiff"}, _
         {"tr", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"tsv", "text/tab-separated-values"}, _
         {"txt", "text/plain"}, _
         {"ustar", "application/x-ustar"}, _
         {"vcd", "application/x-cdlink"}, _
         {"vrml", "model/vrml"}, _
         {"vxml", "application/voicexml+xml"}, _
         {"wav", "audio/x-wav"}, _
         {"wbmp", "image/vnd.wap.wbmp"}, _
         {"wbmxl", "application/vnd.wap.wbxml"}, _
         {"wml", "text/vnd.wap.wml"}, _
         {"wmlc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlc"}, _
         {"wmls", "text/vnd.wap.wmlscript"}, _
         {"wmlsc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc"}, _
         {"wrl", "model/vrml"}, _
         {"xbm", "image/x-xbitmap"}, _
         {"xht", "application/xhtml+xml"}, _
         {"xhtml", "application/xhtml+xml"}, _
         {"xls", "application/vnd.ms-excel"}, _
         {"xml", "application/xml"}, _
         {"xpm", "image/x-xpixmap"}, _
         {"xsl", "application/xml"}, _
         {"xslt", "application/xslt+xml"}, _
         {"xul", "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml"}, _
         {"xwd", "image/x-xwindowdump"}, _
         {"xyz", "chemical/x-xyz"}, _
         {"zip", "application/zip"} _
        }

I'd use configuration for this, so I can choose the mime-types I need and modify them accordingly, without changing a single line of code

Is there an online list somewhere? The above list looked a little more complete, and found some of the missing ones, here: stackoverflow.com/questions/4212861/ -- but it seems there should be a web service somewhere that you can just send a filename and some bytes too that can make a best guess and figure the rest out...

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


Public Shared Function GetFromFileName(ByVal fileName As String) As String
        Return GetFromExtension(Path.GetExtension(fileName).Remove(0, 1))
    End Function

    Public Shared Function GetFromExtension(ByVal extension As String) As String
        If extension.StartsWith("."c) Then
            extension = extension.Remove(0, 1)
        End If

        If MIMETypesDictionary.ContainsKey(extension) Then
            Return MIMETypesDictionary(extension)
        End If

        Return "unknown/unknown"
    End Function

    Private Shared ReadOnly MIMETypesDictionary As New Dictionary(Of String, String)() From { _
         {"ai", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"aif", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"aifc", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"aiff", "audio/x-aiff"}, _
         {"asc", "text/plain"}, _
         {"atom", "application/atom+xml"}, _
         {"au", "audio/basic"}, _
         {"avi", "video/x-msvideo"}, _
         {"bcpio", "application/x-bcpio"}, _
         {"bin", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"bmp", "image/bmp"}, _
         {"cdf", "application/x-netcdf"}, _
         {"cgm", "image/cgm"}, _
         {"class", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"cpio", "application/x-cpio"}, _
         {"cpt", "application/mac-compactpro"}, _
         {"csh", "application/x-csh"}, _
         {"css", "text/css"}, _
         {"dcr", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"dif", "video/x-dv"}, _
         {"dir", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"djv", "image/vnd.djvu"}, _
         {"djvu", "image/vnd.djvu"}, _
         {"dll", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"dmg", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"dms", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"doc", "application/msword"}, _
         {"dtd", "application/xml-dtd"}, _
         {"dv", "video/x-dv"}, _
         {"dvi", "application/x-dvi"}, _
         {"dxr", "application/x-director"}, _
         {"eps", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"etx", "text/x-setext"}, _
         {"exe", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"ez", "application/andrew-inset"}, _
         {"gif", "image/gif"}, _
         {"gram", "application/srgs"}, _
         {"grxml", "application/srgs+xml"}, _
         {"gtar", "application/x-gtar"}, _
         {"hdf", "application/x-hdf"}, _
         {"hqx", "application/mac-binhex40"}, _
         {"htm", "text/html"}, _
         {"html", "text/html"}, _
         {"ice", "x-conference/x-cooltalk"}, _
         {"ico", "image/x-icon"}, _
         {"ics", "text/calendar"}, _
         {"ief", "image/ief"}, _
         {"ifb", "text/calendar"}, _
         {"iges", "model/iges"}, _
         {"igs", "model/iges"}, _
         {"jnlp", "application/x-java-jnlp-file"}, _
         {"jp2", "image/jp2"}, _
         {"jpe", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"jpeg", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"jpg", "image/jpeg"}, _
         {"js", "application/x-javascript"}, _
         {"kar", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"latex", "application/x-latex"}, _
         {"lha", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"lzh", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"m3u", "audio/x-mpegurl"}, _
         {"m4a", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4b", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4p", "audio/mp4a-latm"}, _
         {"m4u", "video/vnd.mpegurl"}, _
         {"m4v", "video/x-m4v"}, _
         {"mac", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"man", "application/x-troff-man"}, _
         {"mathml", "application/mathml+xml"}, _
         {"me", "application/x-troff-me"}, _
         {"mesh", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"mid", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"midi", "audio/midi"}, _
         {"mif", "application/vnd.mif"}, _
         {"mov", "video/quicktime"}, _
         {"movie", "video/x-sgi-movie"}, _
         {"mp2", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"mp3", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"mp4", "video/mp4"}, _
         {"mpe", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpeg", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpg", "video/mpeg"}, _
         {"mpga", "audio/mpeg"}, _
         {"ms", "application/x-troff-ms"}, _
         {"msh", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"mxu", "video/vnd.mpegurl"}, _
         {"nc", "application/x-netcdf"}, _
         {"oda", "application/oda"}, _
         {"ogg", "application/ogg"}, _
         {"pbm", "image/x-portable-bitmap"}, _
         {"pct", "image/pict"}, _
         {"pdb", "chemical/x-pdb"}, _
         {"pdf", "application/pdf"}, _
         {"pgm", "image/x-portable-graymap"}, _
         {"pgn", "application/x-chess-pgn"}, _
         {"pic", "image/pict"}, _
         {"pict", "image/pict"}, _
         {"png", "image/png"}, _
         {"pnm", "image/x-portable-anymap"}, _
         {"pnt", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"pntg", "image/x-macpaint"}, _
         {"ppm", "image/x-portable-pixmap"}, _
         {"ppt", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"}, _
         {"ps", "application/postscript"}, _
         {"qt", "video/quicktime"}, _
         {"qti", "image/x-quicktime"}, _
         {"qtif", "image/x-quicktime"}, _
         {"ra", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"}, _
         {"ram", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"}, _
         {"ras", "image/x-cmu-raster"}, _
         {"rdf", "application/rdf+xml"}, _
         {"rgb", "image/x-rgb"}, _
         {"rm", "application/vnd.rn-realmedia"}, _
         {"roff", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"rtf", "text/rtf"}, _
         {"rtx", "text/richtext"}, _
         {"sgm", "text/sgml"}, _
         {"sgml", "text/sgml"}, _
         {"sh", "application/x-sh"}, _
         {"shar", "application/x-shar"}, _
         {"silo", "model/mesh"}, _
         {"sit", "application/x-stuffit"}, _
         {"skd", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skm", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skp", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"skt", "application/x-koan"}, _
         {"smi", "application/smil"}, _
         {"smil", "application/smil"}, _
         {"snd", "audio/basic"}, _
         {"so", "application/octet-stream"}, _
         {"spl", "application/x-futuresplash"}, _
         {"src", "application/x-wais-source"}, _
         {"sv4cpio", "application/x-sv4cpio"}, _
         {"sv4crc", "application/x-sv4crc"}, _
         {"svg", "image/svg+xml"}, _
         {"swf", "application/x-shockwave-flash"}, _
         {"t", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"tar", "application/x-tar"}, _
         {"tcl", "application/x-tcl"}, _
         {"tex", "application/x-tex"}, _
         {"texi", "application/x-texinfo"}, _
         {"texinfo", "application/x-texinfo"}, _
         {"tif", "image/tiff"}, _
         {"tiff", "image/tiff"}, _
         {"tr", "application/x-troff"}, _
         {"tsv", "text/tab-separated-values"}, _
         {"txt", "text/plain"}, _
         {"ustar", "application/x-ustar"}, _
         {"vcd", "application/x-cdlink"}, _
         {"vrml", "model/vrml"}, _
         {"vxml", "application/voicexml+xml"}, _
         {"wav", "audio/x-wav"}, _
         {"wbmp", "image/vnd.wap.wbmp"}, _
         {"wbmxl", "application/vnd.wap.wbxml"}, _
         {"wml", "text/vnd.wap.wml"}, _
         {"wmlc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlc"}, _
         {"wmls", "text/vnd.wap.wmlscript"}, _
         {"wmlsc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc"}, _
         {"wrl", "model/vrml"}, _
         {"xbm", "image/x-xbitmap"}, _
         {"xht", "application/xhtml+xml"}, _
         {"xhtml", "application/xhtml+xml"}, _
         {"xls", "application/vnd.ms-excel"}, _
         {"xml", "application/xml"}, _
         {"xpm", "image/x-xpixmap"}, _
         {"xsl", "application/xml"}, _
         {"xslt", "application/xslt+xml"}, _
         {"xul", "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml"}, _
         {"xwd", "image/x-xwindowdump"}, _
         {"xyz", "chemical/x-xyz"}, _
         {"zip", "application/zip"} _
        }

I'd use configuration for this, so I can choose the mime-types I need and modify them accordingly, without changing a single line of code

Is there an online list somewhere? The above list looked a little more complete, and found some of the missing ones, here: stackoverflow.com/questions/4212861/ -- but it seems there should be a web service somewhere that you can just send a filename and some bytes too that can make a best guess and figure the rest out...

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


[DllImport(@"urlmon.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
    private extern static System.UInt32 FindMimeFromData(
        System.UInt32 pBC,
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)] System.String pwzUrl,
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPArray)] byte[] pBuffer,
        System.UInt32 cbSize,
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPStr)] System.String pwzMimeProposed,
        System.UInt32 dwMimeFlags,
        out System.UInt32 ppwzMimeOut,
        System.UInt32 dwReserverd
    );

    public static string getMimeFromFile(string filename)
    {
        if (!File.Exists(filename))
            throw new FileNotFoundException(filename + " not found");

        byte[] buffer = new byte[256];
        using (FileStream fs = new FileStream(filename, FileMode.Open))
        {
            if (fs.Length >= 256)
                fs.Read(buffer, 0, 256);
            else
                fs.Read(buffer, 0, (int)fs.Length);
        }
        try
        {
            System.UInt32 mimetype;
            FindMimeFromData(0, null, buffer, 256, null, 0, out mimetype, 0);
            System.IntPtr mimeTypePtr = new IntPtr(mimetype);
            string mime = Marshal.PtrToStringUni(mimeTypePtr);
            Marshal.FreeCoTaskMem(mimeTypePtr);
            return mime;
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            return "unknown/unknown";
        }
    }
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

I did use urlmon.dll in the end. I thought there would be an easier way but this works. I include the code to help anyone else and allow me to find it again if I need it.

I ran into a problem with this code when hosting it in IIS on Windows 8. Using the implementation on pinvoke.net (which has subtle differences) solved the issue: pinvoke.net/default.aspx/urlmon.findmimefromdata

I've been testing this code with IIS 7 and it hasn't been working for me. I have a CSV file that I'm testing. I've been changing the extension of the CSV (to .png, .jpeg, etc) and the mimetype changes with the extension (image/png, image/jpeg). I could be wrong, but it was my understanding that Urlmon.dll determined the mimetype using the file's metadata, not just it's extension

Probably whatever is mapped in the registry.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public static class MIMEAssistant
{
  private static readonly Dictionary<string, string> MIMETypesDictionary = new Dictionary<string, string>
  {
    {"ai", "application/postscript"},
    {"aif", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"aifc", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"aiff", "audio/x-aiff"},
    {"asc", "text/plain"},
    {"atom", "application/atom+xml"},
    {"au", "audio/basic"},
    {"avi", "video/x-msvideo"},
    {"bcpio", "application/x-bcpio"},
    {"bin", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"bmp", "image/bmp"},
    {"cdf", "application/x-netcdf"},
    {"cgm", "image/cgm"},
    {"class", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"cpio", "application/x-cpio"},
    {"cpt", "application/mac-compactpro"},
    {"csh", "application/x-csh"},
    {"css", "text/css"},
    {"dcr", "application/x-director"},
    {"dif", "video/x-dv"},
    {"dir", "application/x-director"},
    {"djv", "image/vnd.djvu"},
    {"djvu", "image/vnd.djvu"},
    {"dll", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"dmg", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"dms", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"doc", "application/msword"},
    {"docx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document"},
    {"dotx", "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.template"},
    {"docm","application/vnd.ms-word.document.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"dotm","application/vnd.ms-word.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"dtd", "application/xml-dtd"},
    {"dv", "video/x-dv"},
    {"dvi", "application/x-dvi"},
    {"dxr", "application/x-director"},
    {"eps", "application/postscript"},
    {"etx", "text/x-setext"},
    {"exe", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"ez", "application/andrew-inset"},
    {"gif", "image/gif"},
    {"gram", "application/srgs"},
    {"grxml", "application/srgs+xml"},
    {"gtar", "application/x-gtar"},
    {"hdf", "application/x-hdf"},
    {"hqx", "application/mac-binhex40"},
    {"htm", "text/html"},
    {"html", "text/html"},
    {"ice", "x-conference/x-cooltalk"},
    {"ico", "image/x-icon"},
    {"ics", "text/calendar"},
    {"ief", "image/ief"},
    {"ifb", "text/calendar"},
    {"iges", "model/iges"},
    {"igs", "model/iges"},
    {"jnlp", "application/x-java-jnlp-file"},
    {"jp2", "image/jp2"},
    {"jpe", "image/jpeg"},
    {"jpeg", "image/jpeg"},
    {"jpg", "image/jpeg"},
    {"js", "application/x-javascript"},
    {"kar", "audio/midi"},
    {"latex", "application/x-latex"},
    {"lha", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"lzh", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"m3u", "audio/x-mpegurl"},
    {"m4a", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4b", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4p", "audio/mp4a-latm"},
    {"m4u", "video/vnd.mpegurl"},
    {"m4v", "video/x-m4v"},
    {"mac", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"man", "application/x-troff-man"},
    {"mathml", "application/mathml+xml"},
    {"me", "application/x-troff-me"},
    {"mesh", "model/mesh"},
    {"mid", "audio/midi"},
    {"midi", "audio/midi"},
    {"mif", "application/vnd.mif"},
    {"mov", "video/quicktime"},
    {"movie", "video/x-sgi-movie"},
    {"mp2", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"mp3", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"mp4", "video/mp4"},
    {"mpe", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpeg", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpg", "video/mpeg"},
    {"mpga", "audio/mpeg"},
    {"ms", "application/x-troff-ms"},
    {"msh", "model/mesh"},
    {"mxu", "video/vnd.mpegurl"},
    {"nc", "application/x-netcdf"},
    {"oda", "application/oda"},
    {"ogg", "application/ogg"},
    {"pbm", "image/x-portable-bitmap"},
    {"pct", "image/pict"},
    {"pdb", "chemical/x-pdb"},
    {"pdf", "application/pdf"},
    {"pgm", "image/x-portable-graymap"},
    {"pgn", "application/x-chess-pgn"},
    {"pic", "image/pict"},
    {"pict", "image/pict"},
    {"png", "image/png"}, 
    {"pnm", "image/x-portable-anymap"},
    {"pnt", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"pntg", "image/x-macpaint"},
    {"ppm", "image/x-portable-pixmap"},
    {"ppt", "application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"},
    {"pptx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation"},
    {"potx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.template"},
    {"ppsx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.slideshow"},
    {"ppam","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.addin.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"pptm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.presentation.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"potm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"ppsm","application/vnd.ms-powerpoint.slideshow.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"ps", "application/postscript"},
    {"qt", "video/quicktime"},
    {"qti", "image/x-quicktime"},
    {"qtif", "image/x-quicktime"},
    {"ra", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"},
    {"ram", "audio/x-pn-realaudio"},
    {"ras", "image/x-cmu-raster"},
    {"rdf", "application/rdf+xml"},
    {"rgb", "image/x-rgb"},
    {"rm", "application/vnd.rn-realmedia"},
    {"roff", "application/x-troff"},
    {"rtf", "text/rtf"},
    {"rtx", "text/richtext"},
    {"sgm", "text/sgml"},
    {"sgml", "text/sgml"},
    {"sh", "application/x-sh"},
    {"shar", "application/x-shar"},
    {"silo", "model/mesh"},
    {"sit", "application/x-stuffit"},
    {"skd", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skm", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skp", "application/x-koan"},
    {"skt", "application/x-koan"},
    {"smi", "application/smil"},
    {"smil", "application/smil"},
    {"snd", "audio/basic"},
    {"so", "application/octet-stream"},
    {"spl", "application/x-futuresplash"},
    {"src", "application/x-wais-source"},
    {"sv4cpio", "application/x-sv4cpio"},
    {"sv4crc", "application/x-sv4crc"},
    {"svg", "image/svg+xml"},
    {"swf", "application/x-shockwave-flash"},
    {"t", "application/x-troff"},
    {"tar", "application/x-tar"},
    {"tcl", "application/x-tcl"},
    {"tex", "application/x-tex"},
    {"texi", "application/x-texinfo"},
    {"texinfo", "application/x-texinfo"},
    {"tif", "image/tiff"},
    {"tiff", "image/tiff"},
    {"tr", "application/x-troff"},
    {"tsv", "text/tab-separated-values"},
    {"txt", "text/plain"},
    {"ustar", "application/x-ustar"},
    {"vcd", "application/x-cdlink"},
    {"vrml", "model/vrml"},
    {"vxml", "application/voicexml+xml"},
    {"wav", "audio/x-wav"},
    {"wbmp", "image/vnd.wap.wbmp"},
    {"wbmxl", "application/vnd.wap.wbxml"},
    {"wml", "text/vnd.wap.wml"},
    {"wmlc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlc"},
    {"wmls", "text/vnd.wap.wmlscript"},
    {"wmlsc", "application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc"},
    {"wrl", "model/vrml"},
    {"xbm", "image/x-xbitmap"},
    {"xht", "application/xhtml+xml"},
    {"xhtml", "application/xhtml+xml"},
    {"xls", "application/vnd.ms-excel"},                        
    {"xml", "application/xml"},
    {"xpm", "image/x-xpixmap"},
    {"xsl", "application/xml"},
    {"xlsx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet"},
    {"xltx","application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.template"},
    {"xlsm","application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xltm","application/vnd.ms-excel.template.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xlam","application/vnd.ms-excel.addin.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xlsb","application/vnd.ms-excel.sheet.binary.macroEnabled.12"},
    {"xslt", "application/xslt+xml"},
    {"xul", "application/vnd.mozilla.xul+xml"},
    {"xwd", "image/x-xwindowdump"},
    {"xyz", "chemical/x-xyz"},
    {"zip", "application/zip"}
  };

  public static string GetMIMEType(string fileName)
  {
    //get file extension
    string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToLowerInvariant();

    if (extension.Length > 0 && 
        MIMETypesDictionary.ContainsKey(extension.Remove(0, 1)))
    {
      return MIMETypesDictionary[extension.Remove(0, 1)];
    }
    return "unknown/unknown";
  }
}

@JalalAldeenSaa'd - an even better fix IMHO would be to use StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase to the dictionary constructor. Ordinal comparison is faster than invariant, and you will get rid of .ToLower() and its variations.

A subset of this list is also convenient for mapping WebImage.ImageFormat back to a mime type. Thanks!

Depending on your goal, you might want to return "application/octet-stream" instead of "unknown/unknown".

Since my edit was rejected I will post here: the extension must be in all lower case, or it won't be found in the dictionary.

This is based on the filename however. It could be useful for someone, just not the OP, who wanted it done by file contents.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public class MimeType
{
    private static readonly byte[] BMP = { 66, 77 };
    private static readonly byte[] DOC = { 208, 207, 17, 224, 161, 177, 26, 225 };
    private static readonly byte[] EXE_DLL = { 77, 90 };
    private static readonly byte[] GIF = { 71, 73, 70, 56 };
    private static readonly byte[] ICO = { 0, 0, 1, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] JPG = { 255, 216, 255 };
    private static readonly byte[] MP3 = { 255, 251, 48 };
    private static readonly byte[] OGG = { 79, 103, 103, 83, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] PDF = { 37, 80, 68, 70, 45, 49, 46 };
    private static readonly byte[] PNG = { 137, 80, 78, 71, 13, 10, 26, 10, 0, 0, 0, 13, 73, 72, 68, 82 };
    private static readonly byte[] RAR = { 82, 97, 114, 33, 26, 7, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] SWF = { 70, 87, 83 };
    private static readonly byte[] TIFF = { 73, 73, 42, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] TORRENT = { 100, 56, 58, 97, 110, 110, 111, 117, 110, 99, 101 };
    private static readonly byte[] TTF = { 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] WAV_AVI = { 82, 73, 70, 70 };
    private static readonly byte[] WMV_WMA = { 48, 38, 178, 117, 142, 102, 207, 17, 166, 217, 0, 170, 0, 98, 206, 108 };
    private static readonly byte[] ZIP_DOCX = { 80, 75, 3, 4 };

    public static string GetMimeType(byte[] file, string fileName)
    {

        string mime = "application/octet-stream"; //DEFAULT UNKNOWN MIME TYPE

        //Ensure that the filename isn't empty or null
        if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(fileName))
        {
            return mime;
        }

        //Get the file extension
        string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName) == null
                               ? string.Empty
                               : Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToUpper();

        //Get the MIME Type
        if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(BMP))
        {
            mime = "image/bmp";
        }
        else if (file.Take(8).SequenceEqual(DOC))
        {
            mime = "application/msword";
        }
        else if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(EXE_DLL))
        {
            mime = "application/x-msdownload"; //both use same mime type
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(GIF))
        {
            mime = "image/gif";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ICO))
        {
            mime = "image/x-icon";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(JPG))
        {
            mime = "image/jpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(MP3))
        {
            mime = "audio/mpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(14).SequenceEqual(OGG))
        {
            if (extension == ".OGX")
            {
                mime = "application/ogg";
            }
            else if (extension == ".OGA")
            {
                mime = "audio/ogg";
            }
            else
            {
                mime = "video/ogg";
            }
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(PDF))
        {
            mime = "application/pdf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(PNG))
        {
            mime = "image/png";
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(RAR))
        {
            mime = "application/x-rar-compressed";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(SWF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-shockwave-flash";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(TIFF))
        {
            mime = "image/tiff";
        }
        else if (file.Take(11).SequenceEqual(TORRENT))
        {
            mime = "application/x-bittorrent";
        }
        else if (file.Take(5).SequenceEqual(TTF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-font-ttf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(WAV_AVI))
        {
            mime = extension == ".AVI" ? "video/x-msvideo" : "audio/x-wav";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(WMV_WMA))
        {
            mime = extension == ".WMA" ? "audio/x-ms-wma" : "video/x-ms-wmv";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ZIP_DOCX))
        {
            mime = extension == ".DOCX" ? "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document" : "application/x-zip-compressed";
        }

        return mime;
    }


}

+1 for using the bytes. Now one can even take the expected number of bytes for a particular mime-type in order to test it (not a default of 256). However, I'd go for a struct here, with the extension, bytes and mime/type as properties and probably keep a dictionary of pre-defined structs. This would save me endless if-else checks

@Nutshell I believe XLS has a 0 byte at the end whereas DOC does not, so check for XLS first, then DOC. As for XLSX/DOCX, they do share the same signature (ZIP), so to distinguish those you will need to go deeper than reading the header. For example, XLSX files have the string "xl/_rels/workbook.xml.rels" near the header whereas DOCX files have the string "word/_rels/document.xml.rels" near the header. This is just one of many ways to try and distinguish those particular types and it is certainly not going to cover 100% of scenarios. (ex. Zip file with DOCX/XLSX files in it)

Here is an example in C#:

Hey guys. Im the one how forked the original FileTypeDetective to MimeDetective at github. Im happy if it is usefull. And iv talked with the developer trailmax. We have changed the license to MIT!

I use byte array sequences to determine the correct MIME type of a given file. The advantage of this over just looking at the file extension of the file name is that if a user were to rename a file to bypass certain file type upload restrictions, the file name extension would fail to catch this. On the other hand, getting the file signature via byte array will stop this mischievous behavior from happening.

If you want to add more MIME types, you can get the byte array sequences of many different file types from here. Also, here is another good resource concerning file signatures.

Notice I handled DOCX file types differently since DOCX is really just a ZIP file. In this scenario, I simply check the file extension once I verified that it has that sequence. This example is far from complete for some people, but you can easily add your own.

Thanks @ROFLwTIME - I've enhanced this a little to handle when we have a byte array but no filename / extension. (Of course for some mime types it will need to default, or needs to be enhanced further to correctly identify). But if anyone would like me to post the code please let me know.

The problem with this approach is that, for example, a text file starting with "MZ" will be interpreted as a .EXE file. In other words, you should at least consider extension in all cases, plus a longer signature or per-format heuristics to avoid false positives.

What I do a lot of times if all else fails is step through several files of a particular type that I am looking for and look for a pattern in the byte sequence of the files. In the end, this is still basic verification and cannot be used for 100% proof of determining file types.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public class MimeType
{
    private static readonly byte[] BMP = { 66, 77 };
    private static readonly byte[] DOC = { 208, 207, 17, 224, 161, 177, 26, 225 };
    private static readonly byte[] EXE_DLL = { 77, 90 };
    private static readonly byte[] GIF = { 71, 73, 70, 56 };
    private static readonly byte[] ICO = { 0, 0, 1, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] JPG = { 255, 216, 255 };
    private static readonly byte[] MP3 = { 255, 251, 48 };
    private static readonly byte[] OGG = { 79, 103, 103, 83, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] PDF = { 37, 80, 68, 70, 45, 49, 46 };
    private static readonly byte[] PNG = { 137, 80, 78, 71, 13, 10, 26, 10, 0, 0, 0, 13, 73, 72, 68, 82 };
    private static readonly byte[] RAR = { 82, 97, 114, 33, 26, 7, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] SWF = { 70, 87, 83 };
    private static readonly byte[] TIFF = { 73, 73, 42, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] TORRENT = { 100, 56, 58, 97, 110, 110, 111, 117, 110, 99, 101 };
    private static readonly byte[] TTF = { 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] WAV_AVI = { 82, 73, 70, 70 };
    private static readonly byte[] WMV_WMA = { 48, 38, 178, 117, 142, 102, 207, 17, 166, 217, 0, 170, 0, 98, 206, 108 };
    private static readonly byte[] ZIP_DOCX = { 80, 75, 3, 4 };

    public static string GetMimeType(byte[] file, string fileName)
    {

        string mime = "application/octet-stream"; //DEFAULT UNKNOWN MIME TYPE

        //Ensure that the filename isn't empty or null
        if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(fileName))
        {
            return mime;
        }

        //Get the file extension
        string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName) == null
                               ? string.Empty
                               : Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToUpper();

        //Get the MIME Type
        if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(BMP))
        {
            mime = "image/bmp";
        }
        else if (file.Take(8).SequenceEqual(DOC))
        {
            mime = "application/msword";
        }
        else if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(EXE_DLL))
        {
            mime = "application/x-msdownload"; //both use same mime type
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(GIF))
        {
            mime = "image/gif";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ICO))
        {
            mime = "image/x-icon";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(JPG))
        {
            mime = "image/jpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(MP3))
        {
            mime = "audio/mpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(14).SequenceEqual(OGG))
        {
            if (extension == ".OGX")
            {
                mime = "application/ogg";
            }
            else if (extension == ".OGA")
            {
                mime = "audio/ogg";
            }
            else
            {
                mime = "video/ogg";
            }
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(PDF))
        {
            mime = "application/pdf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(PNG))
        {
            mime = "image/png";
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(RAR))
        {
            mime = "application/x-rar-compressed";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(SWF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-shockwave-flash";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(TIFF))
        {
            mime = "image/tiff";
        }
        else if (file.Take(11).SequenceEqual(TORRENT))
        {
            mime = "application/x-bittorrent";
        }
        else if (file.Take(5).SequenceEqual(TTF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-font-ttf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(WAV_AVI))
        {
            mime = extension == ".AVI" ? "video/x-msvideo" : "audio/x-wav";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(WMV_WMA))
        {
            mime = extension == ".WMA" ? "audio/x-ms-wma" : "video/x-ms-wmv";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ZIP_DOCX))
        {
            mime = extension == ".DOCX" ? "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document" : "application/x-zip-compressed";
        }

        return mime;
    }


}

+1 for using the bytes. Now one can even take the expected number of bytes for a particular mime-type in order to test it (not a default of 256). However, I'd go for a struct here, with the extension, bytes and mime/type as properties and probably keep a dictionary of pre-defined structs. This would save me endless if-else checks

@Nutshell I believe XLS has a 0 byte at the end whereas DOC does not, so check for XLS first, then DOC. As for XLSX/DOCX, they do share the same signature (ZIP), so to distinguish those you will need to go deeper than reading the header. For example, XLSX files have the string "xl/_rels/workbook.xml.rels" near the header whereas DOCX files have the string "word/_rels/document.xml.rels" near the header. This is just one of many ways to try and distinguish those particular types and it is certainly not going to cover 100% of scenarios. (ex. Zip file with DOCX/XLSX files in it)

Here is an example in C#:

Hey guys. Im the one how forked the original FileTypeDetective to MimeDetective at github. Im happy if it is usefull. And iv talked with the developer trailmax. We have changed the license to MIT!

I use byte array sequences to determine the correct MIME type of a given file. The advantage of this over just looking at the file extension of the file name is that if a user were to rename a file to bypass certain file type upload restrictions, the file name extension would fail to catch this. On the other hand, getting the file signature via byte array will stop this mischievous behavior from happening.

If you want to add more MIME types, you can get the byte array sequences of many different file types from here. Also, here is another good resource concerning file signatures.

Notice I handled DOCX file types differently since DOCX is really just a ZIP file. In this scenario, I simply check the file extension once I verified that it has that sequence. This example is far from complete for some people, but you can easily add your own.

Thanks @ROFLwTIME - I've enhanced this a little to handle when we have a byte array but no filename / extension. (Of course for some mime types it will need to default, or needs to be enhanced further to correctly identify). But if anyone would like me to post the code please let me know.

The problem with this approach is that, for example, a text file starting with "MZ" will be interpreted as a .EXE file. In other words, you should at least consider extension in all cases, plus a longer signature or per-format heuristics to avoid false positives.

What I do a lot of times if all else fails is step through several files of a particular type that I am looking for and look for a pattern in the byte sequence of the files. In the end, this is still basic verification and cannot be used for 100% proof of determining file types.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public class MimeType
{
    private static readonly byte[] BMP = { 66, 77 };
    private static readonly byte[] DOC = { 208, 207, 17, 224, 161, 177, 26, 225 };
    private static readonly byte[] EXE_DLL = { 77, 90 };
    private static readonly byte[] GIF = { 71, 73, 70, 56 };
    private static readonly byte[] ICO = { 0, 0, 1, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] JPG = { 255, 216, 255 };
    private static readonly byte[] MP3 = { 255, 251, 48 };
    private static readonly byte[] OGG = { 79, 103, 103, 83, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] PDF = { 37, 80, 68, 70, 45, 49, 46 };
    private static readonly byte[] PNG = { 137, 80, 78, 71, 13, 10, 26, 10, 0, 0, 0, 13, 73, 72, 68, 82 };
    private static readonly byte[] RAR = { 82, 97, 114, 33, 26, 7, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] SWF = { 70, 87, 83 };
    private static readonly byte[] TIFF = { 73, 73, 42, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] TORRENT = { 100, 56, 58, 97, 110, 110, 111, 117, 110, 99, 101 };
    private static readonly byte[] TTF = { 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] WAV_AVI = { 82, 73, 70, 70 };
    private static readonly byte[] WMV_WMA = { 48, 38, 178, 117, 142, 102, 207, 17, 166, 217, 0, 170, 0, 98, 206, 108 };
    private static readonly byte[] ZIP_DOCX = { 80, 75, 3, 4 };

    public static string GetMimeType(byte[] file, string fileName)
    {

        string mime = "application/octet-stream"; //DEFAULT UNKNOWN MIME TYPE

        //Ensure that the filename isn't empty or null
        if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(fileName))
        {
            return mime;
        }

        //Get the file extension
        string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName) == null
                               ? string.Empty
                               : Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToUpper();

        //Get the MIME Type
        if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(BMP))
        {
            mime = "image/bmp";
        }
        else if (file.Take(8).SequenceEqual(DOC))
        {
            mime = "application/msword";
        }
        else if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(EXE_DLL))
        {
            mime = "application/x-msdownload"; //both use same mime type
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(GIF))
        {
            mime = "image/gif";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ICO))
        {
            mime = "image/x-icon";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(JPG))
        {
            mime = "image/jpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(MP3))
        {
            mime = "audio/mpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(14).SequenceEqual(OGG))
        {
            if (extension == ".OGX")
            {
                mime = "application/ogg";
            }
            else if (extension == ".OGA")
            {
                mime = "audio/ogg";
            }
            else
            {
                mime = "video/ogg";
            }
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(PDF))
        {
            mime = "application/pdf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(PNG))
        {
            mime = "image/png";
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(RAR))
        {
            mime = "application/x-rar-compressed";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(SWF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-shockwave-flash";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(TIFF))
        {
            mime = "image/tiff";
        }
        else if (file.Take(11).SequenceEqual(TORRENT))
        {
            mime = "application/x-bittorrent";
        }
        else if (file.Take(5).SequenceEqual(TTF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-font-ttf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(WAV_AVI))
        {
            mime = extension == ".AVI" ? "video/x-msvideo" : "audio/x-wav";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(WMV_WMA))
        {
            mime = extension == ".WMA" ? "audio/x-ms-wma" : "video/x-ms-wmv";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ZIP_DOCX))
        {
            mime = extension == ".DOCX" ? "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document" : "application/x-zip-compressed";
        }

        return mime;
    }


}

+1 for using the bytes. Now one can even take the expected number of bytes for a particular mime-type in order to test it (not a default of 256). However, I'd go for a struct here, with the extension, bytes and mime/type as properties and probably keep a dictionary of pre-defined structs. This would save me endless if-else checks

@Nutshell I believe XLS has a 0 byte at the end whereas DOC does not, so check for XLS first, then DOC. As for XLSX/DOCX, they do share the same signature (ZIP), so to distinguish those you will need to go deeper than reading the header. For example, XLSX files have the string "xl/_rels/workbook.xml.rels" near the header whereas DOCX files have the string "word/_rels/document.xml.rels" near the header. This is just one of many ways to try and distinguish those particular types and it is certainly not going to cover 100% of scenarios. (ex. Zip file with DOCX/XLSX files in it)

Here is an example in C#:

Hey guys. Im the one how forked the original FileTypeDetective to MimeDetective at github. Im happy if it is usefull. And iv talked with the developer trailmax. We have changed the license to MIT!

I use byte array sequences to determine the correct MIME type of a given file. The advantage of this over just looking at the file extension of the file name is that if a user were to rename a file to bypass certain file type upload restrictions, the file name extension would fail to catch this. On the other hand, getting the file signature via byte array will stop this mischievous behavior from happening.

If you want to add more MIME types, you can get the byte array sequences of many different file types from here. Also, here is another good resource concerning file signatures.

Notice I handled DOCX file types differently since DOCX is really just a ZIP file. In this scenario, I simply check the file extension once I verified that it has that sequence. This example is far from complete for some people, but you can easily add your own.

Thanks @ROFLwTIME - I've enhanced this a little to handle when we have a byte array but no filename / extension. (Of course for some mime types it will need to default, or needs to be enhanced further to correctly identify). But if anyone would like me to post the code please let me know.

The problem with this approach is that, for example, a text file starting with "MZ" will be interpreted as a .EXE file. In other words, you should at least consider extension in all cases, plus a longer signature or per-format heuristics to avoid false positives.

What I do a lot of times if all else fails is step through several files of a particular type that I am looking for and look for a pattern in the byte sequence of the files. In the end, this is still basic verification and cannot be used for 100% proof of determining file types.

Note
Rectangle 27 1

c Using .NET, how can you find the mime type of a file based on the file signature not the extension?


public class MimeType
{
    private static readonly byte[] BMP = { 66, 77 };
    private static readonly byte[] DOC = { 208, 207, 17, 224, 161, 177, 26, 225 };
    private static readonly byte[] EXE_DLL = { 77, 90 };
    private static readonly byte[] GIF = { 71, 73, 70, 56 };
    private static readonly byte[] ICO = { 0, 0, 1, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] JPG = { 255, 216, 255 };
    private static readonly byte[] MP3 = { 255, 251, 48 };
    private static readonly byte[] OGG = { 79, 103, 103, 83, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] PDF = { 37, 80, 68, 70, 45, 49, 46 };
    private static readonly byte[] PNG = { 137, 80, 78, 71, 13, 10, 26, 10, 0, 0, 0, 13, 73, 72, 68, 82 };
    private static readonly byte[] RAR = { 82, 97, 114, 33, 26, 7, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] SWF = { 70, 87, 83 };
    private static readonly byte[] TIFF = { 73, 73, 42, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] TORRENT = { 100, 56, 58, 97, 110, 110, 111, 117, 110, 99, 101 };
    private static readonly byte[] TTF = { 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 };
    private static readonly byte[] WAV_AVI = { 82, 73, 70, 70 };
    private static readonly byte[] WMV_WMA = { 48, 38, 178, 117, 142, 102, 207, 17, 166, 217, 0, 170, 0, 98, 206, 108 };
    private static readonly byte[] ZIP_DOCX = { 80, 75, 3, 4 };

    public static string GetMimeType(byte[] file, string fileName)
    {

        string mime = "application/octet-stream"; //DEFAULT UNKNOWN MIME TYPE

        //Ensure that the filename isn't empty or null
        if (string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(fileName))
        {
            return mime;
        }

        //Get the file extension
        string extension = Path.GetExtension(fileName) == null
                               ? string.Empty
                               : Path.GetExtension(fileName).ToUpper();

        //Get the MIME Type
        if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(BMP))
        {
            mime = "image/bmp";
        }
        else if (file.Take(8).SequenceEqual(DOC))
        {
            mime = "application/msword";
        }
        else if (file.Take(2).SequenceEqual(EXE_DLL))
        {
            mime = "application/x-msdownload"; //both use same mime type
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(GIF))
        {
            mime = "image/gif";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ICO))
        {
            mime = "image/x-icon";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(JPG))
        {
            mime = "image/jpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(MP3))
        {
            mime = "audio/mpeg";
        }
        else if (file.Take(14).SequenceEqual(OGG))
        {
            if (extension == ".OGX")
            {
                mime = "application/ogg";
            }
            else if (extension == ".OGA")
            {
                mime = "audio/ogg";
            }
            else
            {
                mime = "video/ogg";
            }
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(PDF))
        {
            mime = "application/pdf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(PNG))
        {
            mime = "image/png";
        }
        else if (file.Take(7).SequenceEqual(RAR))
        {
            mime = "application/x-rar-compressed";
        }
        else if (file.Take(3).SequenceEqual(SWF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-shockwave-flash";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(TIFF))
        {
            mime = "image/tiff";
        }
        else if (file.Take(11).SequenceEqual(TORRENT))
        {
            mime = "application/x-bittorrent";
        }
        else if (file.Take(5).SequenceEqual(TTF))
        {
            mime = "application/x-font-ttf";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(WAV_AVI))
        {
            mime = extension == ".AVI" ? "video/x-msvideo" : "audio/x-wav";
        }
        else if (file.Take(16).SequenceEqual(WMV_WMA))
        {
            mime = extension == ".WMA" ? "audio/x-ms-wma" : "video/x-ms-wmv";
        }
        else if (file.Take(4).SequenceEqual(ZIP_DOCX))
        {
            mime = extension == ".DOCX" ? "application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document" : "application/x-zip-compressed";
        }

        return mime;
    }


}

+1 for using the bytes. Now one can even take the expected number of bytes for a particular mime-type in order to test it (not a default of 256). However, I'd go for a struct here, with the extension, bytes and mime/type as properties and probably keep a dictionary of pre-defined structs. This would save me endless if-else checks

@Nutshell I believe XLS has a 0 byte at the end whereas DOC does not, so check for XLS first, then DOC. As for XLSX/DOCX, they do share the same signature (ZIP), so to distinguish those you will need to go deeper than reading the header. For example, XLSX files have the string "xl/_rels/workbook.xml.rels" near the header whereas DOCX files have the string "word/_rels/document.xml.rels" near the header. This is just one of many ways to try and distinguish those particular types and it is certainly not going to cover 100% of scenarios. (ex. Zip file with DOCX/XLSX files in it)

Here is an example in C#:

Hey guys. Im the one how forked the original FileTypeDetective to MimeDetective at github. Im happy if it is usefull. And iv talked with the developer trailmax. We have changed the license to MIT!

I use byte array sequences to determine the correct MIME type of a given file. The advantage of this over just looking at the file extension of the file name is that if a user were to rename a file to bypass certain file type upload restrictions, the file name extension would fail to catch this. On the other hand, getting the file signature via byte array will stop this mischievous behavior from happening.

If you want to add more MIME types, you can get the byte array sequences of many different file types from here. Also, here is another good resource concerning file signatures.

Notice I handled DOCX file types differently since DOCX is really just a ZIP file. In this scenario, I simply check the file extension once I verified that it has that sequence. This example is far from complete for some people, but you can easily add your own.

Thanks @ROFLwTIME - I've enhanced this a little to handle when we have a byte array but no filename / extension. (Of course for some mime types it will need to default, or needs to be enhanced further to correctly identify). But if anyone would like me to post the code please let me know.

The problem with this approach is that, for example, a text file starting with "MZ" will be interpreted as a .EXE file. In other words, you should at least consider extension in all cases, plus a longer signature or per-format heuristics to avoid false positives.

What I do a lot of times if all else fails is step through several files of a particular type that I am looking for and look for a pattern in the byte sequence of the files. In the end, this is still basic verification and cannot be used for 100% proof of determining file types.

Note