## How to use filter, map, and reduce in Python 3?

```>>> def f(x): return x % 2 != 0 and x % 3 != 0
...
>>> [i for i in range(2, 25) if f(i)]
[5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23]
>>> def cube(x): return x*x*x
...
>>> [cube(i) for i in range(1, 11)]
[1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729, 1000]
>>>```

@Breezer actually i**3 will call i.__pow__(3) and i*i*i i.__mul__(i).__mul__(i) (or something like that). With ints it doesn't matter but with numpy numbers/custom classes it might even produce different results.

Edit: The 99 percent figure is pulled directly from the Whats New In Python 3.0 page authored by Guido van Rossum.

So, for filter and map, you can wrap them with list() to see the results like you did before.

The functionality of map and filter was intentionally changed to return iterators, and reduce was removed from being a built-in and placed in functools.reduce.

The recommendation now is that you replace your usage of map and filter with generators expressions or list comprehensions. Example:

They say that for loops are 99 percent of the time easier to read than reduce, but I'd just stick with functools.reduce.

You are absolutely correct. I kept the function in the list comprehension examples to keep it looking similar to the filter/map examples.

You do not need to create extra functions in list comprehensions. Just use [i*i*i for i in range(1,11)]

i**3 is also equivalent of i*i*i

Note

## How to use filter, map, and reduce in Python 3?

• Removed reduce(). Use functools.reduce() if you really need it; however, 99 percent of the time an explicit for loop is more readable.
• map() and filter() return iterators. If you really need a list, a quick fix is e.g. list(map(...)), but a better fix is often to use a list comprehension (especially when the original code uses lambda), or rewriting the code so it doesnt need a list at all. Particularly tricky is map() invoked for the side effects of the function; the correct transformation is to use a regular for loop (since creating a list would just be wasteful).

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"99 percent of the time an explicit for loop is more readable."

@FernandoPelliccioni: Can't be help. It comes directly from the official documentation.

The whole answer here are quotes from the documentation.

You can read about the changes in What's New In Python 3.0. You should read it thoroughly when you move from 2.x to 3.x since a lot has been changed.

Note

## How to use filter, map, and reduce in Python 3?

```190
[1, 2]```
```from contextlib import contextmanager

@contextmanager
def noiters(*funcs):
if not funcs:
funcs = [map, filter, zip] # etc
from functools import reduce
globals()[reduce.__name__] = reduce
for func in funcs:
globals()[func.__name__] = lambda *ar, func = func, **kwar: list(func(*ar, **kwar))
try:
yield
finally:
del globals()[reduce.__name__]
for func in funcs: globals()[func.__name__] = func```
```with noiters(map):
from operator import add