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I am currently facing the same problem. On 4.1 Jelly Bean I receive an IOException "No authentication challenges found" when calling getResponseCode() on the HttpURLConnection.

As one can see in 4.1 JB the method getAuthorizationCredentials() throws the IOException. It parses the challenge headers it finds in the response using HeaderParser.parseChallenges(..), if the response code is 401 or 407. If the returned List is empty the Exception is thrown.

We are currently investigating what exactly causes that List to be empty, but have the suspicion that our server might use realm=... instead of realm="..." in the challenge header. Missing quotation marks might be the cause for this problem. We have to investigate further if that is indeed the case and if we can make it work.

+1 For a clear explanation and the links to the code. The code also expects realm=" to be the first parameter after the scheme.

By now we have been able to verify that the usage of realm= without quotation marks was indeed the reason which caused this error for us. We were able to change this on our backend side and now everything is working as expected.

I made my app work under android 4.x finally by just removing mHttpConnection.setDoOutput(true);But I still had not knewn clearly about the root cause.

+1 for Excellent response. Problem on my side was the server return of realm=... instead of realm="..." . Fixed that and app started working on both ICS and JB

did you find a workaround for this? It works on kitkat, but not on JB

HttpURLConnection worked fine in Android 2.x but NOT in 4.1: No authen...

android authentication httpurlconnection
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I am currently facing the same problem. On 4.1 Jelly Bean I receive an IOException "No authentication challenges found" when calling getResponseCode() on the HttpURLConnection.

As one can see in 4.1 JB the method getAuthorizationCredentials() throws the IOException. It parses the challenge headers it finds in the response using HeaderParser.parseChallenges(..), if the response code is 401 or 407. If the returned List is empty the Exception is thrown.

We are currently investigating what exactly causes that List to be empty, but have the suspicion that our server might use realm=... instead of realm="..." in the challenge header. Missing quotation marks might be the cause for this problem. We have to investigate further if that is indeed the case and if we can make it work.

+1 For a clear explanation and the links to the code. The code also expects realm=" to be the first parameter after the scheme.

By now we have been able to verify that the usage of realm= without quotation marks was indeed the reason which caused this error for us. We were able to change this on our backend side and now everything is working as expected.

I made my app work under android 4.x finally by just removing mHttpConnection.setDoOutput(true);But I still had not knewn clearly about the root cause.

+1 for Excellent response. Problem on my side was the server return of realm=... instead of realm="..." . Fixed that and app started working on both ICS and JB

did you find a workaround for this? It works on kitkat, but not on JB

HttpURLConnection worked fine in Android 2.x but NOT in 4.1: No authen...

android authentication httpurlconnection
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This error happens because the server sends a 401 (Unauthorized) but does not give a WWW-Authenticate header which is a hint to the client what to do next. The WWW-Authenticate header tells the client, which kind of authentication is needed (either Basic or Digest). This is probably not very useful in headless http clients, but that's how the HTTP 1.1 RFC is defined. The error occurs because the lib tries to parse the WWW-Authenticate header but can't.

(...)The response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field (section 14.47) containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource.(...)

Possible solutions if you can change the server:

  • Add a fake "WWW-Authenticate" header like: WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="fake". This is a mere workaround not a solution, but it should work and the http client is satisfied (see here a discussion of what you can put in the header). But beware that some http clients may automatically retry the request resulting in multiple requests (e.g. increments the wrong login count too often). This was observed with the iOS http client.
  • As proposed by loudvchar in this blog to avoid automatic reactions to the challenge like a pop-up login form in a browser, you can use a non-standard authentication method like so: WWW-Authenticate: xBasic realm="fake". The important point is that the realm has to be included.
  • Use HTTP status code 403 instead of 401. It's semantic is not the same and usually when working with login 401 is a correct response (see here for a detailed discussion) but the safer solution in terms of compatibility.

Possible solutions if you can't change the server:

  • As @ErikZ wrote in his post you could use a try&catch HttpURLConnection connection = ...; try { // Will throw IOException if server responds with 401. connection.getResponseCode(); } catch (IOException e) { // Will return 401, because now connection has the correct internal state. int responsecode = connection.getResponseCode(); }

Cool man, I swear I saw a different behavior, anyway just tested what you are saying and is correct +1...

I'm having this problem on one Android device but not another, I guess some OEMs overwrite the HttpUrlConnection class? Either way, this fix worked.

You are a god among men.

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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This error happens because the server sends a 401 (Unauthorized) but does not give a WWW-Authenticate header which is a hint to the client what to do next. The WWW-Authenticate header tells the client, which kind of authentication is needed (either Basic or Digest). This is probably not very useful in headless http clients, but that's how the HTTP 1.1 RFC is defined. The error occurs because the lib tries to parse the WWW-Authenticate header but can't.

(...)The response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field (section 14.47) containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource.(...)

Possible solutions if you can change the server:

  • Add a fake "WWW-Authenticate" header like: WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="fake". This is a mere workaround not a solution, but it should work and the http client is satisfied (see here a discussion of what you can put in the header). But beware that some http clients may automatically retry the request resulting in multiple requests (e.g. increments the wrong login count too often). This was observed with the iOS http client.
  • As proposed by loudvchar in this blog to avoid automatic reactions to the challenge like a pop-up login form in a browser, you can use a non-standard authentication method like so: WWW-Authenticate: xBasic realm="fake". The important point is that the realm has to be included.
  • Use HTTP status code 403 instead of 401. It's semantic is not the same and usually when working with login 401 is a correct response (see here for a detailed discussion) but the safer solution in terms of compatibility.

Possible solutions if you can't change the server:

  • As @ErikZ wrote in his post you could use a try&catch HttpURLConnection connection = ...; try { // Will throw IOException if server responds with 401. connection.getResponseCode(); } catch (IOException e) { // Will return 401, because now connection has the correct internal state. int responsecode = connection.getResponseCode(); }

Cool man, I swear I saw a different behavior, anyway just tested what you are saying and is correct +1...

I'm having this problem on one Android device but not another, I guess some OEMs overwrite the HttpUrlConnection class? Either way, this fix worked.

You are a god among men.

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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There's a difference between your HTTP traffic for iOS and for Android. This is guaranteed, otherwise you'd get identical behaviour from the server. The difference is probably in HTTP header(s) &/or parameter(s).

This is very difficult to debug remotely via SO Q&A - E.g. we don't know what headers & parameters your iOS client is successfully using nor how your server is configured & programmed.

  • Compare (2) and (3). For the most thorough comparison, save each HTTP request and response message as a separate file for (2) and (3), then diff the corresponding files.

Seems you have the same problem for both GET and POST: the server is configured for BASIC authentication, but the client is not following the authentication protocol correctly. I think it just shows as a slightly different sympton in the two cases: for GET it says 'resource not found' (because you're not authenticated) and for POST the resource is given by you, but the server says you're not authorized to change the resource on the server. I suggest you've done enough (good!) debugging of request contents and now you should stop and focus on getting authentication working.

Authorization
WWW-Authenticate
WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="Protected"
  • Now send an additional GET request to server that (either without/with the original request contents), but includes the Authentication header, with Base 64 encoded username:password (Authorization: Basic ZnJhbms6ZmllZGxlcg==)

Good work. Thanks. :-) Did you see a response message with Burp?

I am able to look at response. It always times out with coe 408. Yesterday also when using proxy server I was having this problem. If I turn proxy server off then I never get timeout and get exception as described in my question.

When you see the Request message displayed, then on the Interception tab click Forward. This sends the Request to the server, which returns the Response, which should then be displayed by Burp.

java - HttpUrlConnection not working and shows different status code f...

java android exception authentication httpurlconnection
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What version of Android are you testing on?

I had difficulties with the Android authenticator during some development work on Gingerbread (I don't know if it behaves differently on later versions of Android). I used Fiddler2 to examine the HTTP traffic between my app and the server, discovering that the authenticator did not send out the authentication string for every HTTP request. I needed it to.

urlConnection.setRequestProperty("Authorization", "Basic " + Base64.encodeToString("userid:pwd".getBytes(), Base64.NO_WRAP ));

It's a cut-and-paste from my code. Note that urlConnection is an HttpURLConnection object.

I have tried this. But did not work. Even I have tried using different base64 flags like URL_SAFE, NO_WRAP, DEFAULT. I also tried "URL_SAFE | NO_WRAP".

1) in my code, I removed the authenticator (I didn't try combinations of it and setRequestProperty) 2) for the setRequestProperty above, NO_WRAP was definitely necessary since removing it caused a failure 3) Sorry. I'm developing on Windows. I don't know what Mac tools exist.

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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What version of Android are you testing on?

I had difficulties with the Android authenticator during some development work on Gingerbread (I don't know if it behaves differently on later versions of Android). I used Fiddler2 to examine the HTTP traffic between my app and the server, discovering that the authenticator did not send out the authentication string for every HTTP request. I needed it to.

urlConnection.setRequestProperty("Authorization", "Basic " + Base64.encodeToString("userid:pwd".getBytes(), Base64.NO_WRAP ));

It's a cut-and-paste from my code. Note that urlConnection is an HttpURLConnection object.

I have tried this. But did not work. Even I have tried using different base64 flags like URL_SAFE, NO_WRAP, DEFAULT. I also tried "URL_SAFE | NO_WRAP".

1) in my code, I removed the authenticator (I didn't try combinations of it and setRequestProperty) 2) for the setRequestProperty above, NO_WRAP was definitely necessary since removing it caused a failure 3) Sorry. I'm developing on Windows. I don't know what Mac tools exist.

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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I had the same issue on devices running pre-KitKat Android, but I was using the Volley library so the client side fix provided by @for3st didn't work for me, I had to adjust it for Volley, here it is, hope it helps someone struggling with this problem:

HurlStack hurlStack = new HurlStack() {
            @Override
            public HttpResponse performRequest(final Request<?> request, final Map<String, String> additionalHeaders) throws IOException, AuthFailureError {
                try {
                    return super.performRequest(request, additionalHeaders);
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    return new BasicHttpResponse(new ProtocolVersion("HTTP", 1, 1), 401, e.getMessage());
                }
            }
        };

Volley.newRequestQueue(context.getApplicationContext(), hurlStack);

This way a 401 error is returned and your retry policy can do it's job (e.g. request token... etc...). Although IOException could be caused by some other problem, other then a 401, so you could opt for parsing the exception message for Authorization keyword, and return a different response code for others.

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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I had the same issue on devices running pre-KitKat Android, but I was using the Volley library so the client side fix provided by @for3st didn't work for me, I had to adjust it for Volley, here it is, hope it helps someone struggling with this problem:

HurlStack hurlStack = new HurlStack() {
            @Override
            public HttpResponse performRequest(final Request<?> request, final Map<String, String> additionalHeaders) throws IOException, AuthFailureError {
                try {
                    return super.performRequest(request, additionalHeaders);
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    return new BasicHttpResponse(new ProtocolVersion("HTTP", 1, 1), 401, e.getMessage());
                }
            }
        };

Volley.newRequestQueue(context.getApplicationContext(), hurlStack);

This way a 401 error is returned and your retry policy can do it's job (e.g. request token... etc...). Although IOException could be caused by some other problem, other then a 401, so you could opt for parsing the exception message for Authorization keyword, and return a different response code for others.

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java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the requested resource.

java.io.IOException: No authentication challenges found
401 Unauthorized
407 Proxy Authentication Required

If you own the server-side API, then you can fix it by adding the required WWW-Authenticate header when you return 401 or 407. In my case, I fixed it in PHP as follows:

header('WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm="users"');
header('HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized');

HttpURLConnection worked fine in Android 2.x but NOT in 4.1: No authen...

android authentication httpurlconnection
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The 401 (Unauthorized) response message is used by an origin server to challenge the authorization of a user agent. This response MUST include a WWW-Authenticate header field containing at least one challenge applicable to the requested resource.

java.io.IOException: No authentication challenges found
401 Unauthorized
407 Proxy Authentication Required

If you own the server-side API, then you can fix it by adding the required WWW-Authenticate header when you return 401 or 407. In my case, I fixed it in PHP as follows:

header('WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm="users"');
header('HTTP/1.1 401 Unauthorized');

HttpURLConnection worked fine in Android 2.x but NOT in 4.1: No authen...

android authentication httpurlconnection
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Had the same issue on some old devices (Huawei Y330-U11 for instance). Correct way to fix it is to fix it server side as mentioned in the most popular answer.

However, it's really disappointing that the issue occurs only on some devices. And I believe it happens due to different implementations of "UrlConnection". Different Android versions - different "UrlConnection" implementations.

So, you might want to fix it by using the same "UrlConnection" everywhere. Try to use okhttp and okhttp-urlconnection.

compile 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:2.5.0'
compile 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp-urlconnection:2.5.0'

It solved the problem for me on those outdated devices. (I had to use OkClient for Retrofit RestAdapter)

android - java.io.IOException : No authentication challenges found - S...

java android authentication httpurlconnection ioexception
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Had the same issue on some old devices (Huawei Y330-U11 for instance). Correct way to fix it is to fix it server side as mentioned in the most popular answer.

However, it's really disappointing that the issue occurs only on some devices. And I believe it happens due to different implementations of "UrlConnection". Different Android versions - different "UrlConnection" implementations.

So, you might want to fix it by using the same "UrlConnection" everywhere. Try to use okhttp and okhttp-urlconnection.

compile 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp:2.5.0'
compile 'com.squareup.okhttp:okhttp-urlconnection:2.5.0'

It solved the problem for me on those outdated devices. (I had to use OkClient for Retrofit RestAdapter)

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You can set the default authenticator for http requests like this:

Authenticator.setDefault (new Authenticator() {
    protected PasswordAuthentication getPasswordAuthentication() {
        return new PasswordAuthentication ("username", "password".toCharArray());
    }
});

Also, if you require more flexibility, you can check out the Apache HttpClient, which will give you more authentication options (as well as session support, etc.)

How do you handle a bad authentication event? [For example, if the user supplies username and password authentication credentials that don't match anything]?

The above code works but is quite implicit as to whats going on. There's subclassing and method overriding going on there, dig into the docs for those classes if you care to know what's going on. The code here is more explicit javacodegeeks

Authenticator
URL.openConnection()

@Yura: no. It's got to be global. You can, however, do evil things such as setting a global authenticator which pulls the credentials out of thread-local variables, and set the credentials per thread before making the HTTP connection.

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There's a native and less intrusive alternative, which works only for your call.

URL url = new URL(location address);
URLConnection uc = url.openConnection();
String userpass = username + ":" + password;
String basicAuth = "Basic " + new String(new Base64().encode(userpass.getBytes()));
uc.setRequestProperty ("Authorization", basicAuth);
InputStream in = uc.getInputStream();

The Base64 class can be provided by Apache Commons Codec.

Didn't work for me this way... Only the way that @James Van Huis was good

It's 'native' on Grails and many other Java frameworks because them all use Apache Commons Libs.

Does not work in general unless you .trim() the result, or call a method variant that does not produce chunked output. javax.xml.bind.DatatypeConverter seems safer.

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You can also use the following, which does not require using external packages:

URL url = new URL(location address);
URLConnection uc = url.openConnection();

String userpass = username + ":" + password;
String basicAuth = "Basic " + javax.xml.bind.DatatypeConverter.printBase64Binary(userpass.getBytes());

uc.setRequestProperty ("Authorization", basicAuth);
InputStream in = uc.getInputStream();

Thanks for the pointer to a 'native' Base64 encoder!

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If you are using the normal login whilst entering the username and password between the protocol and the domain this is simpler. It also works with and without login.

URL url = new URL("http://user:pass@domain.com/url");
URLConnection urlConnection = url.openConnection();

if (url.getUserInfo() != null) {
    String basicAuth = "Basic " + new String(new Base64().encode(url.getUserInfo().getBytes()));
    urlConnection.setRequestProperty("Authorization", basicAuth);
}

InputStream inputStream = urlConnection.getInputStream();

This was exactly what I've been searching for the past 30 minutes. Thanks a lot!

Does not work if pass contains a #

If your username/password contain special characters, I believe you would need to urlencode those. Then, in the snippet of code above, you would pass url.getUserInfo() thorugh URLDecoder.decode() first (@Peter Rader).

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As i have came here looking for an Android-Java-Answer i am going to do a short summary:

  • Use basic java.net.URLConnection and set the Authentication-Header manually like shown here

If you want to use java.net.URLConnection with Basic Authentication in Android try this code:

URL url = new URL("http://www.mywebsite.com/resource");
URLConnection urlConnection = url.openConnection();
String header = "Basic " + new String(android.util.Base64.encode("user:pass".getBytes(), android.util.Base64.NO_WRAP));
urlConnection.addRequestProperty("Authorization", header);
// go on setting more request headers, reading the response, etc

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Be really careful with the "Base64().encode()"approach, my team and I got 400 Apache bad request issues because it adds a \r\n at the end of the string generated.

Here is our solution :

import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

HttpGet getRequest = new HttpGet(endpoint);
getRequest.addHeader("Authorization", "Basic " + getBasicAuthenticationEncoding());

private String getBasicAuthenticationEncoding() {

        String userPassword = username + ":" + password;
        return new String(Base64.encodeBase64(userPassword.getBytes()));
    }

httpurlconnection - Connecting to remote URL which requires authentica...

java httpurlconnection
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This error happens beause the server sends a 401 (Unauthorized) but does not give a "WWW-Authenticate" which is a hint for the client what to do next. The "WWW-Authenticate" Header tells the client which kind of authentication is needed (either Basic or Digest). This is usually not very useful in headless http clients, but thats how the standard is defined. The error occurs because the lib tries to parse the "WWW-Authenticate" header but can't.

Possible solutions if you can change the server:

  • Add a fake "WWW-Authenticate" header like: WWW-Authenticate: Basic realm="fake". This is a mere workaround not a solution, but it should work and the http client is satisfied.
  • Use HTTP status code 403 instead of 401. It's semantic is not the same and usually when working with login 401 is a correct response (see here for detailed discussion) but its close enough.

Possible solutions if you can't change the server:

As @ErikZ wrote in his post you could use a try&catch

HttpURLConnection connection = ...;
try {
    // Will throw IOException if server responds with 401.
    connection.getResponseCode(); 
} catch (IOException e) {
    // Will return 401, because now connection has the correct internal state.
    int responsecode = connection.getResponseCode(); 
}

android - java.io.IOException: Received authentication challenge is nu...

android httpurlconnection