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(Option 1) - Running JUnit tests with Android Studio using a Java modu...

Note that at the time of writing robolectric 2.4 is the latest version and has no support for appcompat v7 library. Support wil be added in robolectric 3.0 release (no ETA yet). Also ActionBar Sherlock can cause issues with robolectric.

To use Robolectric within Android Studio you have 2 options:

This technique uses a java module for all your tests with a dependency to your android module and a custom test runner with some magic:

Also check the link at the end of that post for running the tests from android studio.

I encountered a few issues setting up junit tests to run from gradle in Android Studio.

This is a very basic sample project for running junit tests from a gradle based project in Android Studio: https://github.com/hanscappelle/android-studio-junit-robolectric This was tested with Android Studio 0.8.14, JUnit 4.10, robolectric gradle plugin 0.13+ and robolectric 2.3

The build script is the build.gradle file in the root of you project. There I had to add robolectric gradle plugin to classpath

buildscript {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:0.13.2'

        // NOTE: Do not place your application dependencies here; they belong
        // in the individual module build.gradle files
        classpath 'org.robolectric:robolectric-gradle-plugin:0.13.+'

    }
}

allprojects {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
}

In the build script of your app module use the robolectric plugin, add robolectric config and add androidTestCompile dependencies.

apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
apply plugin: 'robolectric'

android {
    // like any other project
}

robolectric {
    // configure the set of classes for JUnit tests
    include '**/*Test.class'
    exclude '**/espresso/**/*.class'

    // configure max heap size of the test JVM
    maxHeapSize = '2048m'

    // configure the test JVM arguments
    jvmArgs '-XX:MaxPermSize=512m', '-XX:-UseSplitVerifier'

    // configure whether failing tests should fail the build
    ignoreFailures true

    // use afterTest to listen to the test execution results
    afterTest { descriptor, result ->
        println "Executing test for {$descriptor.name} with result: ${result.resultType}"
    }
}

dependencies {
    compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])

    androidTestCompile 'org.robolectric:robolectric:2.3'
    androidTestCompile 'junit:junit:4.10'
}

Now put the test classes in the default location (or update gradle config)

app/src/androidTest/java

And name your tests classes ending with Test (or again update config), extending junit.framework.TestCase and annotate test methods with @Test.

package be.hcpl.android.mytestedapplication;

import junit.framework.TestCase;
import org.junit.Test;

public class MainActivityTest extends TestCase {

    @Test
    public void testThatSucceeds(){
        // all OK
        assert true;
    }

    @Test
    public void testThatFails(){
        // all NOK
        assert false;
    }
}

Next execute the tests using gradlew from command line (make it executable using chmod +x if needed)

./gradlew clean test
Executing test for {testThatSucceeds} with result: SUCCESS
Executing test for {testThatFails} with result: FAILURE

android.hcpl.be.mytestedapplication.MainActivityTest > testThatFails FAILED
    java.lang.AssertionError at MainActivityTest.java:21

2 tests completed, 1 failed                                  
There were failing tests. See the report at: file:///Users/hcpl/Development/git/MyTestedApplication/app/build/test-report/debug/index.html
:app:test                      

BUILD SUCCESSFUL

Just like you can have your java source files somewhere else you can move your test source files. Just update gradle sourceSets config.

sourceSets {
        main {
            manifest.srcFile 'AndroidManifest.xml'
            java.srcDirs = ['src']
            res.srcDirs = ['res']
            assets.srcDirs = ['assets']
        }

        androidTest {
            setRoot('tests')
        }
    }

You forgot to add the junit test dependency in the app build script

dependencies {
    compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])

    androidTestCompile 'org.robolectric:robolectric:2.3'
    androidTestCompile 'junit:junit:4.10'
}

You're running this test with the run configurations from Android Studio instead of command line (Terminal tab in Android Studio). To run it from Android Studio you'll have to update the app.iml file to have the jdk entry listed at the bottom. See deckard-gradle example for details.

!!! JUnit version 3.8 or later expected:

java.lang.RuntimeException: Stub!
    at junit.runner.BaseTestRunner.<init>(BaseTestRunner.java:5)
    at junit.textui.TestRunner.<init>(TestRunner.java:54)
    at junit.textui.TestRunner.<init>(TestRunner.java:48)
    at junit.textui.TestRunner.<init>(TestRunner.java:41)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.junitVersionChecks(JUnitStarter.java:190)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.canWorkWithJUnitVersion(JUnitStarter.java:173)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.junit.JUnitStarter.main(JUnitStarter.java:56)
    at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
    at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
    at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
    at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
    at com.intellij.rt.execution.application.AppMain.main(AppMain.java:134)

See this SO question for a solution. Add the below export to you bash profile:

export JAVA_HOME=`/usr/libexec/java_home -v 1.7`
ERROR: JAVA_HOME is set to an invalid directory: export JAVA_HOME=/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.7.0_51.jdk/Contents/Home

Please set the JAVA_HOME variable in your environment to match the
location of your Java installation.

If you want to run your tests from Android Studio Junit Test runner instead you'll have to expand the build.gradle file a little more so that android studio can find your compiled test classes:

sourceSets {
    testLocal {
        java.srcDir file('src/test/java')
        resources.srcDir file('src/test/resources')
    }
}

android {

    // tell Android studio that the instrumentTest source set is located in the unit test source set
    sourceSets {
        instrumentTest.setRoot('src/test')
    }
}

dependencies {

    // Dependencies for the `testLocal` task, make sure to list all your global dependencies here as well
    testLocalCompile 'junit:junit:4.11'
    testLocalCompile 'com.google.android:android:4.1.1.4'
    testLocalCompile 'org.robolectric:robolectric:2.3'

    // Android Studio doesn't recognize the `testLocal` task, so we define the same dependencies as above for instrumentTest
    // which is Android Studio's test task
    androidTestCompile 'junit:junit:4.11'
    androidTestCompile 'com.google.android:android:4.1.1.4'
    androidTestCompile 'org.robolectric:robolectric:2.3'

}

task localTest(type: Test, dependsOn: assemble) {
    testClassesDir = sourceSets.testLocal.output.classesDir

    android.sourceSets.main.java.srcDirs.each { dir ->
        def buildDir = dir.getAbsolutePath().split('/')
        buildDir =  (buildDir[0..(buildDir.length - 4)] + ['build', 'classes', 'debug']).join('/')

        sourceSets.testLocal.compileClasspath += files(buildDir)
        sourceSets.testLocal.runtimeClasspath += files(buildDir)
    }

    classpath = sourceSets.testLocal.runtimeClasspath
}

check.dependsOn localTest

Running simple JUnit tests on Android Studio (IntelliJ) when using a G...

android junit intellij-idea gradle android-studio